The Lower Paleolithic AgeEvidence found in caves in the Gower Peninsula and Glamorgan and in the Elwy Valley in Flintshire strongly suggests that the area we now know as Wales was most likely inhabited as early as 250,000 BC
The Ice Age10,000 BC – Human settlement of the area begins in significant numbers. Britain becomes an Island.
The Neolithic Age3000 BC – Settlers begin migrating from Europe and possibly Ireland.
2000 BC – The Beaker Folk come to the island (most likely from Germany) and bring their skills in metal working to the native tribes.
The Iron Age1000 BC – The inhabitants support themselves by farming and copper mining. More advanced metal working techniques develop.
500-100 BC – The Celts migrate to and settle in Wales
55 BC – Under the leadership of Julius Caesar, The first Roman armies arrive in Wales.
43 AD – The Romans begin an aggressive assault and eventually conquer Wales.
350 AD – Irish raiders invade Wales and settle there.
410 AD – The Romans end their occupation of Britain. In a vulnerable state, Britain is now ravaged by Saxon invaders.
500 AD – King Arthur’s troops defeat the Saxons at Mount Badon.
784 AD – Offa of Mercia builds Offa’s Dyke, which becomes the permanent marker of Wales’ eastern border.
878 AD – Rhodri Mawr, the first ruler in Wales to unite the nation under one rule, is slain.
927 AD – England becomes the sovereign of the Wales as Welsh kings submit their reign.
1039 AD – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, the last Welsh high king, assumes the throne, temporarily overthrowing English rule.
1063 AD – The rule of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ends as the English once again invade Wales and kill Llewelyn and his relatives to reaffirm English reign.
1141 AD – After the death of Henry the First, the two Llywelyns of Gwynedd lead Wales in a revolt to reclaim Welsh unity. Welsh territory is reclaimed and a resurgence of Welsh culture and pride occurs.
1267 AD – Due to recognition of the Treaty of Montgomery, Llywelyn II is accepted as the ruler of Wales.
1282 AD – Llywelyn II is slain in battle and Wales succumbs to Edward the First’s onslaught. Wales becomes an English principality. Edward begins to build castles throughout Wales in order to keep the residents under his rule.
1301 AD – King Edward II of England is appointed the Prince and ruler of Wales.
1349 AD – The plague ravages Wales, annihilating some 40% of its population.
1400 AD – Owain Glyndwr, supported by all of Wales, heads an insurrection against England.
1410 AD – Glyndwr’s rebellion ends when Henry the IV and his son squelch the rebellion.
1455 AD – The War of the Roses begins in England.
1485 AD – Henry Tudor who is of Welsh ancestry, wins the Battle of Bosworth to become the first Welsh King of England. This victory marks the end of the War of the Roses and brings Welsh ancestry to the English throne.
1536 AD – The first act Act of Union is enacted by Henry VIII. The union of England and Wales is officially complete. Wales falls under the English shire system.
1588 AD – The Bible is published in Welsh. This is one of the most significant occurrences to contribute to the endurance of the Welsh language.
1642 AD – To the delight of the Welsh, Civil War breaks out in England.
1718 AD – The propagation of the Welsh language continues as printing presses are introduced in Wales and books printed in Welsh proliferate.
1735 AD – The Methodist Revival begins.
1795 AD – As the industrial revolution comes to Wales, South Wales becomes a bastion for the iron industry.
1811 AD – Welsh Methodists break with the Church of England.
1815 AD – As the end of the Napoleonic Wars brings peace to Europe and Wales’ population soars, a crisis ensues in the Welsh farming industry.
1831 AD – The Merthyr Uprising brings about riots in Debtors Court by debt ravaged workers. Troops are brought in to contain the uprising and over 24 townspeople are killed. For ten years, Welsh miners continue to revolt, staging Scotch Cattle raids.
1839 AD – The Rebecca Riots begin in response to overwhelmingly high toll rates. Turnpikes in rural areas are destroyed.
1843 AD – Hugh Owen drafts his “Letter to the Welsh People” calling for citizens of Wales to accept the schools of the British and Foreign Schools Society. Owen leads efforts to establish a university in Wales.
1850 – 1860 AD – The Rhondda Valley experiences a profusion of coal mining activity. South Wales’ coal mines become some of the most significant in the world.
1867 AD – The Parliamentary Reform Act gives the vote to over 60,000 more people, many of them industrial workers.
1868 AD – The Liberals hold 21 seats in the Welsh government and the supremacy of the Liberal party is established.
1869 AD – The Amalgamated Association of Miners trade union is established.
1870 – 1880 AD – New efforts to revive the trade union ensue as miners and coal workers fight for better working conditions and decent wages.
1872 AD – The University of Wales at Aberystwyth is established in a vacant seafront hotel. Universities are later founded at Swansea, Cardiff and Bangor.
1889 AD – The Miners Federation of Great Britain is formed.
1893 AD – The Independent Labor Party is formed in England. It has little effect on Wales until greater numbers of coal workers from Ireland and England migrate to Wales.
1903 AD – The sliding scale method of payment is abolished as workers gain fairer wages.
1906 AD – Liberals experience great success in the general election
1908 AD – Lloyd George becomes Chancellor of the Exchecquer and introduces a social security system.
1911 AD – Lloyd George continues his advocacy for the Welsh working class by establishing National Insurance against sickness and unemployment, and was later instrumental in introducing legislation to secure 8 hour workdays to help end exploitation of industrial workers.
1947 AD – As the coal industry in Wales ebbs, new industry such as steel and oil begin to be established.
1960 – 1970 AD – Wales’ economy continues to evolve as nuclear and hydroelectric power stations are launched in the north to supply power for export to England and light industry and a multitude of factories come to other areas of Wales.