4000-750BC – Neolithic and Bronze Ages; the first settlers appear in British Isles, exploiting the resources in the dense woodlands as hunters and gatherers. Farms and colonization soon developed as a way of life and the Stone Age brought about tools for farming, etc. 

750BC-43AD – Expansion of immigrants from the North and West of the British Isles. Known as Celts, these people subscribed to pagan religious beliefs,were at the forefront of the Iron Age and were extremely skilled with war tactics, weaponry, and art. 

80-400AD – Romans in Scotland; in 367 the Romans were driven out from Southern Scotland by the Picts.

400-1000AD – This was the Beginning of Scotland, because now there was no one ruler and the Britons, Picts, Irish Scots and German Anglians were all fighting over its regions. The victory of the Picts ensured that the new northern state would be a substantial kingdom. By the year 1000, Christianity was beginning to influence tribes via Norman influence.

1000-1286AD – Early Medieval Era. Over these 3 centuries, various European cultures merged resulting in the Kingdom of the Scots, which was founded by monarch Malcolm Canmore. As the new kingdom developed, tensions grew between England and the Scots. England’s newfound Norman rulers were not happy that Scotland chose to be independent and would not accept England’s superiority.

1286-1371AD – Almost 100 years of war with England for independence, until the Scots finally drove out the English.

1371-1488AD – The Stewart dynasty fell due to successive corrupt kings and ill health, setting the newly independent country off to a bad start.

1488-1603AD – The Reformation. Stewart monarchs including James IV, James V and Mary Queen of Scots were killed. James VI, went on to be King of England when Margaret Tudor made Scottish monarchs heirs to the throne after Elizabeth of England.

1603-1714AD – The Scottish Parliament broke free from Royal control in 1688 with the Glorious Revolution and the Scottish Church was founded. After economic failure and other political factors, Scottish Parliament eventually merged with the English Parliament, to the dismay of the people of Scotland. 

1714-1837AD – During the 18th century, industry began forming in the lowland areas and cities began to grow such as Glasgow and Edinburgh. The Agricultural Revolution also began to develop wastelands into useable cultivation plots.

1837-1901AD – During the prosperous reign of Queen Victoria, Scotland’s role in industry grew, with coal mines factories, mills and shipyards. Cities became overcrowded and living situations became unhealthy, but Scotland’s social and trade relationships with other countries were never stronger.

1901-1945AD – Development of policies on issues such as free trade, Scottish Home Rule, housing, education, etc., made Scotland a more livable place. 

1945-present – Scotland changed a lot after WWII, by raising its standards of living and infrastructure. The establishment of the Scottish National Party gradually brought about the concept of devolution, which transfers power from a central government to local units.